OBRA – Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act
OSHA – Occupational Safety and Health Administration
CNA – Certified Nursing Assistant
RN – Registered Nurse
LPN – License Practical Nurse
UNAR – Utah Nursing Assistant Registry
MD – Medical Doctor
APS – Adult Protective Service
HIPAA – Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
LTCO – Long Term Care Ombudsman
Dr. – Doctor
SNF – Skilled nursing facility
PHI – Protected Health Information
PPE – Personal Protective Equipment
MRSA – Multi-drug Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus
CDC – Center for Disease Control
HIV – Human Immunodeficiency Virus
AIDS – Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
HBV – Hepatitis B Virus
LTC – Long Term Care
HAV – Hepatitis A Virus
HCV – Hepatitis C Virus
C.Diff – Clostridium difficile
HAI – Health Care Associated Infection
RSV – Respiratory Syncytial Virus
BP, B/P – Blood Pressure
Ap – Apical
VS, V/S – Vital signs
ax – axillary
TPR – Temperature, Pulse, and Respiration
P – Pulse
R – Respiration or rectal
T – Temperature
C – Celsius or Centigrade
F – Fahrenheit
O2 – Oxygen
mmHg – Millimeters mercury
AM /am – hours between midnight and noon
PM/pm – hours between noon and midnight
noc – night
a – before
p – after
peri – perineal care
ASAP – As soon as possible
meds – medication
Rx – Prescription
dx – Diagnosis
PRN, prn – As needed
HS, hs – hour of sleep
c/o – complains of
ad lib – as desired
pt – patient
DC, D/C – Discontinue/ discharge
ht. – Height
wt. – Weight
H2O - water
CPR – Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
stat – at once/immediate
DNR – Do not resuscitate
LOC – Level of consciousness
R.A.C.E. – Remove, Alarm, Contain, Extinguish
ER – Emergency Room
NCR – No Cardiac Resuscitation
P.A.S.S. – Pull, Aim, Squeeze, Sweep
POLST – Physician order for life sustaining treatment
Fx – fracture
SDS – Safety Data Sheet
RT – Respiratory Therapist/Recreational therapy
O.T. – Occupational Therapist
SW – Social Worker
PT – Physical Therapist
amb – ambulate/to walk
BR –bed rest/ bathroom
drsg – dressing
amt. – amount
ROM – range of motion
DQ – decubitus ulcer
HOB – head of bed
rehab – rehabilitation
oob – out of bed
ortho – orthopedics
PROM – Passive range of motion
reg – regular
po – by mouth
NPO – nothing by mouth
abd. – abdomen
ml – milliliter
cc – cubic centimeter
IV – intravenous
I & O – Intake and Output
ac – before meals
pc – after meals
NG – naso-gastric
NKA – no known allergies
oz – ounce
TPN – Total parenteral nutrition
NCS – No Concentrated Sweets
NAS – no added salt
ADA – American Diabetic Association
G tube – Gastrostomy Tube
LCS – Low Concentrated Sweets
Kg – Kilogram
L – Liter
lb. – pound
tsp – teaspoon
tbsp - tablespoon
pre-op – before surgery
post-op – after surgery
TCDB – turn, cough and deep breath
TED hose– brand name of anti-embolism stockings
BRP – bathroom privilege
UA, U/A – urinalysis
cath – catheter
BM – bowel movement
UTI – Urinary tract infection
GI – gastrointestinal
GU – genitourinary
Lab – laboratory
OR – operating room
ASAP – as soon as possible
as tol – as tolerated
H or hr. – hour
(L), L, lt – left
®, R, rt, (R) – right
LOA – leave of absence
neg – negative
per – by.via or through
BID/bid – Twice a day
TID/tid – Three times a day
QID/qid – four times a day
ADL’s – Activities of daily living
qd – every day
qh – every hour
wc, w/c – wheelchair
SOB – Short of breath
s – without
q – every
HA – headache
qhs – every bed time
q2h every two hours
S and S – sign and symptom
Sx - symptoms
RBC – red blood cells
WBC – white blood cells
Tx, tx – treatment
WNL – within normal limits
x – times
i/ii/iii – one/ two/ three
- - negative
+ - positive
< - less than
> – greater than
Δ – change
OCD- Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
MS – Multiple Sclerosis
TIA - Transient Ischemic Attack
TB – Tuberculosis
STD – Sexually Transmitted Disease
CA – Cancer
CVA – Cerebrovascular Accident
COPD – Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
MI – Myocardial Infarction
CHF – Congestive Heart Failure
CAD – Coronary Artery Disease
URI – Upper Respiratory Infection
GERD – Gastric-Esophageal Reflux Disease
TBI – Traumatic brain injury
PVD- Peripheral Vascular Disease
FAS – Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
AP – Angina Pectoris
BPH – Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
RA – Rheumatoid Arthritis
PNS – Peripheral Nervous System
CNS – Central Nervous System
CP – Cerebral Palsy
STI – Secually Transmitted Infection
1. Abandonment: 1. Abandon means to leave or desert someone. To withdraw one's support or help from, especially in spite of duty, allegiance, or responsibility.
2. Abuse: the repetitive and deliberate infliction of injury on another person
3. Acute: a word used to describe a disorder with a rapid onset and a relatively short recovery time, usually unexpected.
4. Adult Protective Services (APS): government agency that oversees the welfare of the Elderly.
5. Assisted living: Provides care for people who are able to provide most of their own care but need limited help with medications, transportation, meals, and housekeeping; a type of long-term care facility.
6. Assault: threatening or attempting to touch a person without his or her consent, causing that person to fear bodily harm.
7. Battery: touching a person without her consent
8. Care plan: outlines the nursing care to be provided to a patient.
9. Chronic: a word used to describe a disorder that is ongoing and often needs to be controlled through continuous medication or treatment.
10. Civility: Formal politeness and courtesy in behavior or speech
11. Client: a person who is being cared for in his or her home.
12. Confidentiality: ensuring that information is accessible only to those authorized
13. Defamation: making untrue statements that hurt another person’s reputation.
14. Dehydration: too little fluid in the tissues of the body.
15. Delegation: to authorize another person to perform a task on your behalf.
16. Disability/disabled: impaired physical or emotional function.
17. Ethics: moral principles or standards that govern conduct
18. False imprisonment: confining another person against his or her will.
19. Fraud: deception that could cause harm to another person
20. Geriatrics: the branch of medicine that focuses on health care of the elderly.
21. Health care team: Made up of many people with different types of knowledge and skill levels.
22. HIPAA: health insurance portability and accountability act. To insure the patients privacy.
23. Home health: Care provided in a person’s home.
24. Hospice: care provided by a health care organization for people who are dying, and their families.
25. Hospital: an institution for health care providing patient treatment by specialized staff and equipment.
26. Interdisciplinary team: a group that consists of specialists from several fields combining skills and resources to present guidance and information. The IDT writes the care plan.
27. Job description: a list of the general tasks, or functions, and responsibilities of a position.
28. Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN): LPN’s work in a variety of health care settings. They are often found working under the supervision of physicians in clinics and hospitals, or in private home health care, In long term care facilities, they sometimes supervise nursing assistants.
29. Libel: written statements that injure someone’s reputation; a form of defamation. These false statements can be in writing, print, pictures or drawings.
30. Long term care: a variety of services which help meet both the medical and non-medical need of people with a chronic illness or disability who cannot care for themselves.
31. Malpractice: negligence committed by people who hold licenses to practice their profession, such as doctors, nurses, lawyers, dentists, and pharmacists.
32. Medicaid: a federally funded and state-regulated plan designed to help people with low incomes to pay for health care.
33. Medical Doctor (MD): practices the ancient profession of medicine, which is concerned with maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease or injury.
34. Medicare: a type of insurance plan that is federally funded by Social Security and which all people 65 years and older, and some younger disabled people, are eligible to participate in.
35. Mental Health: is how we think, feel and act as we cope with life.
36. Mental illness: impairment of an individual’s normal cognitive, emotional, or behavioral functioning.
37. Misappropriation of property: Intentional, illegal use of property.
38. Neglect: is a passive form of abuse in which the perpetrator is responsible to provide care for a victim who is unable to care for oneself, but fails to provide adequate care
39. Nursing Team: consists of an RN, LPN, and CNA
40. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA): an agency within the Department of Labor that establishes safety and health standards for the work place, to protect the safety and health of employees.
41. Ombudsman: receives and resolve complaints, advocate for residents rights, inform residents and their families of their rights, and advocate for good individualized care.
42. Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA): an act passed in 1987 to improve the quality of life for people who live in long-term care facilities by making sure that residents receive a certain standard of care.
43. Patient: a person who is being cared for in a hospital
44. Patient rights: a patient has certain rights. Some are guaranteed by federal law, such as the right to get a copy of your medical records, and the right to keep them private, etc.
45. Pediatric: a branch of medical care that deals with the medical care of infants, children and adolescents.
46. Registered Nurse (RN): a health care professional responsible for implementing the practice of nursing through the use of the nursing process in conjunction with other health care professionals.
47. Registry: the official record, maintained by the state of the people who have successfully completed the nursing assistant training program
48. Resident: a person who is being cared for in a long-term care setting because the long-term care facility becomes the person’s home, either temporarily or permanently.
49. Resident rights: under OBRA ’87, guidelines for Resident Rights were created, reinforcing that long-term care residents should be given the same value, respect, and opportunities – the same rights – that an individual enjoys in the larger community.
50. Scope of practice/ scope of responsibility: what you are legally able to do under your job description.
51. Sexual abuse: forcing undesired sexual behavior by one person upon another.
52. Sexual harassment: bullying or coercion of a sexual nature.
53. Skilled Nursing Facility: an establishment that houses chronically ill, usually elderly patients, and provides long-term nursing care, rehabilitation, and other services.
54. Terminally ill: an illness or condition from which recovery is not expected.
55. Willful infliction of harm: abuse
1. AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) The last and most severe stage of the HIV infection. Transmitted through blood, semen, and breast milk and vaginal secretions. Inability of body to fight off infections.
2. Antisepsis: the use of mild chemicals such as rubbing alcohol and iodine to kill microbes or stop them from growing on skin.
3. Asepsis: state of being free of pathogenic microorganisms
4. Aseptic: free or freed from pathogenic microorganisms. Absence of microorganisms.
5. Bacteria: microscopic organisms
6. Biohazardous: materials of biological origin that could potentially cause harm to humans,
7. Blood borne pathogen: pathogens that can be transmitted to another person through blood or other body fluids.
8. C-Diff(Clostridium difficile): a type of infectious diarrhea caused by the bacteria Clostridium difficile.
9. Chain of infection: describes the elements that must be present for an infection to occur.
10. Clean: free from foreign matter
11. Communicable: can be spread from one person to another
12. Contact Precautions: precautions used when caring for people with diseases caused by pathogens that are transmitted directly (by touching the person) or indirectly (by touching contaminated objects).
13. Contamination: passage of an infectious organism, such as a virus, from an infected person to an object such as a needle, which then, when used, may pass infection to another person.
14. Cross contamination: the passing of bacteria, microorganisms, or other harmful substances indirectly from one patient to another through improper or unsterile equipment, procedures, or products.
15. Disinfection: the use of strong chemicals (such as Clorox) to kill microbes on nonliving objects such as bedpans, urinal, and over bed tables.
16. Exposure incident: an event in which a health care professional’s potential for infection is heightened after coming into contact with a patient that is contagious.
17. Fungus: any of a group of unicellular, multi-cellular, or syncytial spore-producing organisms feeding on organic matter.
18. Hepatitis A, B, & C: is inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the liver. Hepatitis A is transmitted through the fecal oral route. Hepatitis B & C are transmitted by blood and body fluid contact.
19. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): the virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
20. Immunocompromised: Incapable of developing a normal immune response, usually as a result of disease, malnutrition, or immunosuppressive therapy.
21. Infection: invasion by and multiplication of pathogenic microorganisms in a bodily part or tissue, which may produce subsequent tissue injury and progress to overt disease through a variety of cellular or toxic mechanisms.
22. Influenza: a viral infection that attacks your respiratory system.
23. Isolation: precautions that are taken in the health care field to prevent the spread of an infectious agent from the infected patient to susceptible persons.
24. Medical asepsis: techniques that are used to physically remove or kill pathogens.
25. Microorganism: an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye).
26. MRSA: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterium responsible for several difficult-to-treat infections in humans.
27. Non-pathogen: does not cause disease or illness.
28. Normal flora: the mixture of bacteria normally found at specific body sites.
29. Nosocomial: (or health care associated infection) Infections acquired in a hospital or health care unit.
30. Occupational Safety & Health Administration: an agency within the Department of Labor that establishes safety and health standards for the workplace, to protect the safety and health of employees.
31. Parasite: An organism that lives in or on and takes its nourishment from another organism. A parasite cannot live independently.
32. Pathogens: a microbe that can cause illness.
33. Personal protective equipment: gown, mask, gloves, goggles.
34. Reverse isolation: procedures designed to protect a patient from infectious organisms that might be carried by the staff, other patients, or visitors or on droplets…
35. Standard (Universal) precautions: precautions used on every one no matter their known infectious state when dealing with blood, body fluids, and mucous membranes.
36. Sterile: no pathogens (free from living organisms and especially microorganisms). Sterilization is the use of pressurized steam heat or strong chemicals to kill microbes on equipment.
37. Surgical asepsis: refers to destruction of organisms before they enter the body. It is used in caring for open wounds and in surgical procedures.
38. Transmission-Based Isolation: Guidelines we follow to contain pathogens and limit others’ exposure to them as much as possible. Types of isolations are airborne precautions, droplet precautions, and contact precautions. This method is used on contagious patients.
39. Tuberculosis: a communicable bacterial infection that primarily affects the lungs. TB is extremely contagious and is spread through airborne droplets from coughing, sneezing, & speaking.
40. Virus: an infection or disease caused by such an agent.
41. Whooping cough (Pertussis): upper respiratory infection caused by the pertussis bacteria. May cause permanent disability in infants and even death.
1. Angina Pectoris: Intense pain in the chest due to lack of oxygen to the heart.
2. Anus: Where the rectum opens to the outside of the body is the anus
3. Apical: Heartbeat heard with a stethoscope placed on the chest wall over the apex cordi of the heart. Just below the left nipple.
4. Apnea: absence of breathing
5. Arteries : Blood vessels that carries blood away from the heart
6. Asthma: a condition in the lungs where airways narrow making it difficult to breath. Can be caused by allergens, stress, or activity/exercise.
7. Axillary: Armpit
8. Blood pressure: The pressure exerted by the circulating volume of blood on the walls of the arteries and veins.
9. Brachial artery: The principal artery of the upper arm branches into the ulnar and radial arteries. We place the blood pressure cuff over it.
10. Bradycardia: Slow heart beat
11. Bradypnea: abnormally slow breathing rate.
12. Bronchitis: Inflammation of the bronchi related to an infectious agent or chronic damage to bronchi from smoking or chemical agents.
13. Centigrade: The same as Celsius. A temperature scale in which O degrees is freezing and 100 degrees is boiling point of water. To convert to Fahrenheit, multiply Celsius by 1.8 and then add 32.
14. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a term for a group of respiratory diseases that are characterized by airway obstruction/limitation. Includes: chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma
15. Congestive heart failure (CHF): inability of heart to pump a sufficient amount of blood through the body.
16. Coronary artery disease: buildup of plaque in the wall of the arteries causing narrowing and decrease blood supply to the heart muscles. Can lead to a heart attack where the heart muscle does not receive enough oxygen and parts of the heart muscle die.
17. Cyanosis: is a physical sign causing bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes. Cyanosis is caused by a lack of oxygen in the blood
18. Diaphragm: Part of the stethoscope placed against the skin
19. Diastolic Pressure: the pressure that the blood exerts against the arterial walls when the heart muscle relaxes, the second blood pressure measurement
20. Digital thermometer: Instrument for measuring temperature
21. Dyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing
22. Ear canal: External part of the ear leading to the inner ear forming the auditory canal
23. Emphysema: a chronic lung condition where the alveoli become enlarged and less elastic. Often caused by exposure to toxic chemicals or long term exposure to tobacco smoke.
24. Expiration: breathing out, usually a passive process
25. Fahrenheit: Temperature measurement where 32 degrees is freezing and 212 degrees is boiling point of water at sea level. To convert to Celsius subtract 32 and divide by 1.8
26. Hypertension: abnormally high blood pressure
27. Hypotension: abnormally low blood pressure
28. Inhalation: inspiration (a breathing in, as of air into the lungs)
29. Inspiration: a breathing in, as of air into the lungs
30. Irregular: Not regular or rhythmic
31. Myocardial infarction (Heart Attack): lack of blood flow to the heart resulting in death to part of the heart muscle. Typically related to a blockage in the coronary arteries.
32. Oral: Pertaining to the mouth
33. Peripheral vascular disease: inadequate circulation to the extremities.
34. Pneumonia: infection or inflammation of the lungs.
35. Pulse obliteration: When taking a blood pressure you find the radial pulse. Then inflate the cuff until you no longer feel the pulse. Note this point. Inflate the cuff 30 mm Hg beyond the point where you last felt the pulse.
36. Pulse: Rhythmic beating caused by waves of pressure by the ejection of blood from the left ventricle of the heart as it contracts. Pulse rate is the number of pulsations that can be felt over an artery in 1 minute; an indication of the heart rate
37. Radial artery: Artery in the forearm, wrist and hand
38. Rectum: the distal portion of the large intestine
39. Respirations: the process of breathing
40. Sphygmomanometer: a device used to measure blood pressure: the cuff, bulb, and manometer ( gauge that measures the air pressure in the cuff)
41. Stethoscope: Instrument consisting of two earpieces and flexible tubing to a diaphragm used to hear heart, bowel and lung sounds.
42. Systolic: the pressure that the blood exerts against the arterial walls when the heart muscle contract; the first blood pressure measurement that is recorded
43. Tachycardia: Fast heart beat
44. Tachypnea: abnormally rapid breathing
45. Temperature: A measure of heat and cold
46. Temporal temperature: temperature taken over the temporal area.
47. Thermometer: Instrument used to measure temperature
48. Tympanic: Thin membrane in the middle ear that transmits sound vibrations
49. Unconscious: unaware of surrounding environment and incapable of responding to stimuli
50. Vital signs: Blood pressure, Temperature, Pulse, and Respirations
-Hygiene and Grooming
1. AM care: Care provided in the morning to ready the person for the day
2. Anticoagulant: a substance that prevents the clotting of blood
3. Aspiration: the accidental inhalation of foreign material (such as food, liquid or vomitus) into the lungs.
4. Bony prominence: areas where the bone does not have very much muscle over it. High risk for pressure sores.
5. Circumcised: operation to remove the foreskin covering the glans of the penis
6. Corns/callus: thick, hardened layers of skin that develop when your skin tries to protect itself against friction and pressure.
7. Dentures: are prosthetic devices constructed to replace missing teeth, and which are supported by surrounding soft and hard tissues of the oral cavity.
8. Drape: a covering to provide privacy
9. Emesis basin: An emesis basin is a shallow basin with a kidney-shaped footprint and sloping walls (hence its alternate name, the kidney basin)
10. Epidermis: The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin,  composed of terminally differentiated stratified squamous epithelium,  acting as the body's major barrier against
11. Expectorate: to eject or expel matter, as phlegm, from the throat or lungs by coughing
12. Feces: also known as stools, is the waste product of the human digestive system
13. Grooming: assisting patient with clothes and appearance
14. HS/PM Care: care given at bedtime
15. Hygiene: refers to the set of practices associated with the preservation of health and healthy living
16. Labia: a part of the female external genitalia The labia minora (singular: labium minus) or nymphae  are two longitudinal cutaneous folds on the human vulva. They are situated between the labia majora,
17. Mucous Membrane: Mucous membrane, a membrane which secretes mucus
18. Mucous: The adjectival form of mucus, a slippery secretion of the lining of various membranes in the body;
19. Pediculosis: a condition of having lice.
20. Penis: The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external sexual organ of certain biologically male organisms…….
21. Perineal care: cleaning the perineum and anus, as well as the vulva (in women) and the penis (in men).
22. Perineum: In human anatomy, the perineum is generally defined as the surface region in both males and females between the pubic symphysis and the coccyx. the pelvic floor
23. Scrotum: In some male mammals the scrotum is a protuberance of skin and muscle containing the testicles. It is an extension of the abdomen, and is located between the penis and anus
24. Sitz bath: a warm water bath for the perineal area and rectum.
25. Stroke (Cerebral vascular accident or CVA): a condition when the blood vessels that supply blood to the brain rupture or become blocked and the brain cells in that area of the brain die. Functions controlled by that area of the brain can be lost or impaired.
26. Uncircumcised penis: not circumcised
27. Urinary meatus: is the external orifice of the urethra, from which urine is ejected during urination and semen is ejected during ejaculation.
28. Vagina: the canal in the female, from the vulva to the cervix
Patients and Residents Environment, Bed Making
1. Bed trapeze: a triangular metal apparatus above a bed, used to help the patient move and support weight during transfer or position change.
2. Call light: This system allow patients or residents to signal that they need help. May also have an intercom system.
3. Closed bed: Neatly made bed with the top bed linens pulled to the top of the bed
4. Draw/lift /transfer sheet: a small, flat sheet that is placed over the middle of the bottom sheet, covering the area of the bed from above the person’s shoulders to below his or her buttocks.
5. Fanfold: Folding linens in a fan fashion to make an open or surgical bed.
6. Footboard: A padded board at the foot of the bed that keeps the person’s feet in proper alignment.
7. Friction: the force crated when two surfaces (such as a sheet and a person’s skin) rub against each other
8. Incontinent pad/Bed protector: a square of quilted absorbent fabric backed with waterproof material that measures approximately 3 feet by 3 feet; used to prevent soiling of the bottom linens; sometimes called an incontinence pad.
9. Inventory/belongings list: supplies that will be needed and used.
10. Mitered corner: A corner that is made by folding and tucking the sheet so that is lies flat and neat against the mattress.
11. Occupied bed: Linens are changed when the person is still in bed.
12. Open bed: The top sheet, blanket, and bedspread are fan folded toward the foot of the bed. This makes it easier for the person to get in.
13. Shearing: the force created when something or someone is pulled across a surface that offers resistance.
14. Side rails: Rails that can be raised to help prevent a person from falling out of the bed.
15. Toe tuck (pleat): After the bed is made, the linens are pulled straight up over the toe area to make a pleat so there is not pressure on the toes.
Basic Safety/ Emergencies
1. Abdominal thrust/Heimlich maneuver: Used on a conscience choking person to remove object.
2. Aspiration: the accidental inhalation of foreign material (such as food, liquids, or vomitus) into the airway.
3. Cardiac arrest/ heart attack: Cardiac arrest happens when the heart stops pumping blood. Heart attack refers to damage to the muscle of the heart, usually from a lack of blood flow.
4. Choking: severe difficulty in breathing because of a constricted or obstructed throat or a lack of air.
5. Fainting: lose consciousness for a short time because of a temporarily insufficient supply of oxygen to the brain.
6. Fracture: a broken bone. Hip fractures are commonly related to osteoporosis and the aging process.
7. Hemorrhage: severe, uncontrolled bleeding
8. Incident/event/occurrence/accident report: a preprinted document that is completed following an accident involving a patient or resident.
9. Safety data sheets (SDS): A document that summarizes key information about a chemical, its composition, which exposures may be dangerous, what to do if an exposure should occur, and how to clean up spills.
7. Respiratory arrest: the condition where breathing has stopped.
8. Respiratory distress: difficulty getting air exchange
9. Restraint: An influence that inhibits or restrains; a limitation
10. Seizure: a temporary interference with muscle control, movement, speech, vision or awareness. Also called convulsions.
11. Shock: a condition when the circulatory system is unable to get enough blood to the vital organs. This can occur even with a mild injury. Shock is life-threatening.
Body Mechanics/Ergonomics/ROM/DQ’s/Assisting with mobility/Rehabilitation and Restorative Care
1. Abduction: moving of a body part away from the midline of the body.
2. Abductor pillow: medical pillow used to immobilize a person's legs just after hip surgery.
3. Active range of Motion: where the individual moves the joint themselves.
4. Active-assisted range of motion: the patient or resident performs the exercises with some help.
5. Adduction: moving of a body part toward the midline of the body.
6. Alignment: Good posture, the “A” in ABC’s of good body mechanics Positioning of the body so that the spine is not twisted or crooked
7. Ambulate: to walk
8. Amputation: removal, usually through surgery, of a body part.
9. Arthritis (Osteoarthritis): inflammation of the joints. Osteoarthritis is the most common type and mainly affects the hips, knees, hands, and back. Normal consequence of aging.
10. Atrophy- the loss of muscle size and strength
11. Base of support: when standing this is your feet.
12. Bed cradle: Is used to keep the top sheet, blankets, and bedspread off the patient’s or residents feet.
13. Blood clot: a thickened mass in the blood formed by tiny substances called platelets.
14. Body mechanics: the efficient and safe use of the body
15. Cane: sturdy wooden or metal shaft or walking stick used to give support
16. Center of gravity: is your torso, the heaviest part of your body. Bringing your center of gravity closer to your base of support makes it easier for you to stay balanced.
17. Contracture : a condition that occurs when a joint is held in the same position for too long of a period of time, the tendons shorten and become stiff, possibly causing permanent loss of motion in the joint
18. Crutches : a staff or support used by the physically injured or disabled as an aid in walking, usually designed to fit under the armpit and often used in pairs.
19. Decubitus/Pressure Ulcer (a serious skin wound from having pressure on one part of the body for too long. Typically over body prominences. This causes death to the tissue from lack of blood supply
20. Dignity: innate right to respect and ethical treatment.
21. Dorsiflexion: Bending the foot upward at the ankle by pulling the toes toward the head.
22. Ergonomics: is the science of designing the job, equipment, and workplace to fit the worker. Proper ergonomic design is necessary to prevent repetitive strain injuries
23. Extension: the process of straitening or the state of being strait.
24. Flexion: the bending of a limb or joint
25. Foot drop: Paralysis or weakness, of the dorsiflexor muscles of the foot and ankle, resulting in dragging of the foot and toes.
26. Fowlers: the person is lying on his back. The head of the bed is elevated 45-60 degrees.
27. Fracture: a broken bone. Hip fractures are commonly related to osteoporosis and the aging process.
28. Gait/Transfer belt: a device used to assist with standing, walking or transferring.
29. Gait: the manner or style of walking.
30. Geriatric chair: specialized recliners used for older patients.
31. Hemiplegia: Paralysis affecting only one side of the body.
32. High Fowlers position: head of bed is 60 to 90 degrees
33. Inflammation: is a process by which the body's white blood cells and chemicals protect us from infection with foreign substances, such as bacteria and viruses.
34. Lateral: on a person’s side
35. Lithotomy position: lying on your back with knees bent and thighs apart; assumed for vaginal or rectal examination.
36. Log rolling- Gently turning the patient so he is rolled in one fluid motion so that the head, torso, and legs move as one unit and the body is kept in alignment.
37. Mechanical lift: a machine used to assist with lifting, moving and transferring people.
38. Mobility skills: A set of specific techniques and strategies to help people with visual impairments remain safe while moving.
39. Non-skid soles: soles with traction so the person will not slip, socks can also be non-skid
40. Occupational Therapist (OT): use treatments to develop, recover, or maintain the daily living and work skills of their patients.
41. Pain: is a feeling triggered in the nervous system. Pain may be sharp or dull.
42. Paraplegia: paralysis from the waist down.
43. Passive range of motion: exercises are done for a person by a helper, because the person cannot do them by themselves.
44. Phantom pain: tingling, itching, or numbness in the place where the amputated part used to be
45. Physical Therapist (PT): provides services to individuals in order to develop, maintain and restore maximum movement and functional ability throughout life.
46. Pivot: to turn
47. Plantar flexion: Flexing the arch of the foot by pointing the toes downward.
48. Prone position: on your stomach
49. Prosthesis: artificial replacement for legs, feet, arms or other body parts
50. Quadriplegia: paralysis from the neck down.
51. Recreational Therapist: therapy based on engagement in recreational activities (as sports or music) especially to enhance the functioning, independence, and well-being of individuals affected with a disabling condition
52. Rehabilitation: the process of helping a person with a disability to return to his highest level of physical, emotional, or economic function
53. Respiratory therapist (RT): evaluate, treat, and care for patients with breathing or other cardiopulmonary disorders.
54. Restorative nursing care: measures that health care workers take to help a person regain health, strength, and function.
55. Reverse Trendelenburg: the body is laid flat on the back with the head higher than the feet.
56. Rheumatoid Arthritis: an inflammatory disease that cause joint pain, swelling and stiffness. May cause deformity of the joints.
57. Rotation: twisting or turning of a joint.
58. Self care deficit: the relationship of inadequacy between self-care agency and the therapeutic self-care demand.
59. Semi-fowler’s: head of bed is 30-45 degrees
60. Sim’s position; is usually used for rectal examination, treatments and enemas. It is performed by having a patient lie on their left side, left leg extended and right leg flexed. The position is described as follows: 1. Patient lies on their left side 2. Patient's left leg is extended behind their back 3. The patient's right leg is brought forward.
61. Social Worker (SW): is both a profession and social science. It involves the application of social theory and research methods to study and improve the lives of people.
62. Speech Therapist (ST): works with people’s speech production, vocal production, swallowing difficulties and language needs through speech therapy.
63. Stroke (Cerebral vascular accident or CVA): a condition when the blood vessels that supply blood to the brain rupture or become blocked and the brain cells in that area of the brain die. Functions controlled by that area of the brain can be lost or impaired.
64. Supine: lying on your spine- back, lying down with the face up
65. Total hip replacement: surgical procedure to use an artificial hip to replace a hip
66. Trendelenburg: the body is laid flat on the back (supine position) with the feet higher than the head.
67. Trochanter roll/Supportive devices: Support a body part in alignment
68. Walker: A walker or walking frame is a tool for disabled or elderly people who need additional support to maintain balance or stability while walking.
Nutrition, IV’s, I&O
A person needs;
2,000-2,500 ml of water a day are needed for normal fluid balance
1500 ml of water a day is needed to survive
1. Anemia: a reduction in the number of circulation RBC’s.
2. Anorexia/Bulimia: emotional eating disorders
3. Aphasia: condition characterized by either partial or total loss of the ability to communicate verbally or using written words.
4. Calories: the unit of measurement used to describe the energy content of food.
5. Carbohydrates: Mainly sugars and starches, together constituting one of the three principal types of nutrients used as energy sources by the body.
6. Choose my Plate (Food Pyramid): designed to help a person to plan a healthy diet.
7. Clear liquid diet: foods and beverages that can be poured at room temperature and that you can see through
8. Diabetes (Type 1, Type 2, Insulin resistant): a condition where the pancreas does not produce enough insulin. Insulin is needed for sugar use in the body.
9. Diabetic Diet (carbohydrate, ADA): Regulates the amount of fat, carbohydrate, and protein that a person consumes to maintain blood sugar levels.
10. Dietary/feeding aide: Prepares and delivers food trays to hospital patients.
11. Dietician: a person who has a degree in nutrition.
12. Dysphagia: difficulty swallowing. High risk for aspiration
13. Dysphasia: difficulty speaking
14. Edema: Swelling of body tissues due to excessive accumulation of fluid
15. Enteral nutrition: placing food through a tube directly into a person’s intestines or stomach. Can be Nasointestinal, Gastrostomy, or Jejunostomy.
16. Fats: the body uses fat as a fuel source, and fat is the major storage form of energy in the body.
17. Fiber: parts of plants that cannot be digested, namely complex carbohydrates. Also known as bulk or roughage.
18. Fluid restriction: restricting the amount of fluid intake
19. Force Fluids: to increase a person’s fluid intake, offer small amounts of a drink that the person likes frequently through the day.
20. Full liquid: clear liquid diet, plus any other food that can be poured at room or body temperature.
21. Gastrostomy tube: a feeding tube placed directly into the stomach.
22. Glucose: the body’s most basic type of fuel supplied by carbohydrates and sometimes referred to as blood sugar.
23. Graduate: a measuring device used to measure fluids.
24. Intake and output sheet: a document used for recording measurements of all of the fluids that enter and leave the body
25. Intravenous (IV): Existing within or administered into a vein or veins
26. Mechanical Soft Diet : fork mashed and meat ground.
27. Minerals: needed in our diets to remain healthy
28. Nasogastric tube: A plastic tube through the nose, past the throat, and down into the stomach.
29. Nutrients: substances in foods and fluids that the body uses to grow, to repair itself, and to carry out processes essential for living
30. Nutritional supplement: a flavored shake or drink that is used to supply extra calories or protein.
31. Osteoporosis: a condition where the bones become porous, brittle, and weak. Bones are fragile and can break very easily. Very common in older people.
32. Peristalsis: the involuntary constriction and relaxation of the muscles of the intestine creating wavelike movements that push the contents forward.
33. Polydipsia: excessive thirst
34. Polyphagia: excessive hunger
35. Proteins: are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body’s cells, tissues, and organs.
36. Puree: put in a blender
37. Reflux disease (GERD): a condition where gastric contents efflux (backflow) into the esophagus.
38. Regular Diet No restrictions on specific foods or condiments; simply a well-balanced diet.
39. Sodium (NAS, Low sodium): restrictions on the amount of salt that can be used in the diet.
40. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN): provides a patient with all of the fluid and the essential nutrients they need when they are unable to feed themselves by mouth
1. 24 hour urine collection: all urine collected in a 24 hour period
2. Anuria: absence or suppression of urine
3. Bed pan: is an object used for the toileting of a bedridden patient in a health care facility, usually made of a metal, glass, or plastic receptacle.
4. Bedside commode: a device used for elimination when a person is able to get out of bed, but unable to walk to the bathroom; it consists of a chair-like frame with a toilet seat and a removable collection bucket.
5. Bladder retraining: used to help people who are incontinent of urine. Person is encouraged to use the bathroom at scheduled times.
6. Bladder: is the organ that collects urine excreted by the kidneys prior to disposal by urination.
7. BM=Bowel movement: The discharge of waste matter from the large intestine; defecation. The waste matter discharged from the large intestine; feces
8. Bowel obstruction: a mechanical or functional obstruction of the intestines, preventing the normal transit of the products of digestion.
9. Bowel retraining: helps to reestablish normal bowel movements in persons who suffer from constipation, diarrhea, incontinence, or irregularity.
10. Briefs: protective underwear for those that are incontinent similar to a diaper
11. Catheter: A hollow flexible tube for insertion into a body cavity, duct, or vessel to allow the passage of fluids or distend a passageway. Its uses include the drainage of urine
12. Clean catch/ midstream: is a method of collecting a urine sample for various tests, including urinalysis and urine culture.
13. Collection device (hat): used to collect urine or feces for a specimen
14. Colon cancer: a malignant tumor of the colon
15. Colon/large intestine: the colon removes water, salt, and some nutrients forming stool.
16. Colostomy: a surgical procedure that involves connecting a part of the colon onto the anterior abdominal wall, leaving the patient with an opening on the abdomen called a stoma
17. Condom catheter: A special condom is attached to a catheter to keep the catheter in place and to collect urine
18. Constipation: hard, dry feces that are difficult to pass
19. Cystitis: inflammation of the bladder, often called bladder infection.
20. Defecation: or bowel movement
21. Dialysis: is a procedure that performs many of the normal duties of the kidneys, like filtering waste products from the blood, when the kidneys no longer work adequately
22. Diarrhea: the passage of liquid, unformed feces.
23. Down drain bag: collects urine from cather.
24. Down drain: tube that drains out of the bladder into a catheter bag.
25. Dysuria: painful or difficult urination.
26. Enema: the procedure of introducing liquids into the rectum and colon via the anus.
27. Expectorate: cough or spit out phlegm from the throat or lungs.
28. Fecal impaction: a large mass of dry, hard stool that can develop in the rectum due to chronic constipation.
29. Flatus/flatulence: Gas generated in or expelled from the digestive tract, especially the stomach or intestines.
30. Foley/indwelling catheter: is a thin, sterile tube inserted into your bladder to drain urine. It can be left in place in the bladder for a period of time because there is an inflatable balloon at the end that will hold the tubing in place in the bladder.
31. Foreskin: the retractable roll of skin covering the end of the penis.
32. Fracture pan: Description This smaller (length 13") bedpan features a tapered front so that it slides easily under the body Loop handle makes maneuvering easy
33. Hematuria: is the presence of blood in the urine. Hematuria is a sign that something is causing abnormal bleeding in a person's genitourinary tract: the kidneys, the Ureters
34. Hemorrhoids: or piles are swelling and inflammation of veins in the rectum and anus.
35. Ileostomy: is a surgical opening constructed by bringing the end or loop of small intestine (the ileum) out onto the surface of the skin. Intestinal waste passes out of this.
36. Ileum/Small intestine: upper part of the intestine where digestion is completed and nutrients are absorbed by the blood
37. Incontinent : Fecal incontinence, the inability to control one's bowels; Urinary incontinence, the involuntary excretion of urine
38. Incontinent pad: used on someone who is incontinent
39. Kidney failure: diminished function of the kidney. May lead to complete loss of kidney function.
40. Kidney stone (renal calculi): stones that form in the urinary system.
41. Leg bag urine collection: a bag that is attached to the leg where urine accumulates
42. Nocturia: the need to get up more than once or twice during the night to urinate, to the point, where sleep is distrupted.
43. Oliguria: production of abnormally small amounts of urine.
44. Ostomy bag: a bag worn over the stoma to receive fecal discharge.
45. Polyuria: production of too much dilute urine
46. Sample/specimen: a sample used for testing and diagnosis,
47. Sputum: sample coughed up from the lungs
48. Stoma: an artificial opening on your abdomen to collect waste (either faeces or urine), the waste products are collected in a reservoir bag, or pouch
49. Stool: is the waste product of the human digestive system
50. Straight catheter::is a rubber tube that is inserted, drains the bladder, and slipped out.
51. Suprapubic catheter: is a surgically-created connection between the urinary bladder and the skin which is used to drain urine from the bladder
52. Ureterostomy: creation of a new outlet for a ureter
53. Ureters-- muscular tubes—about 16 inches (40 centimeters) long—that attach at their upper end to the kidneys and at their lower end to the bladder
54. Urinal: container for male patients urine collection
55. Urinalysis: (UA) is an array of tests performed on urine and one of the most common methods of medical diagnosis.
56. Urinary incontinence: loss of bladder control that results in the release of urine. May be temporary or permanent.
57. Urinary meatus: the opening of the urethra, situated on the glans penis in males, and in the vulva in females;
58. Urinary tract infection: an infection of any of the organs of the urinary tract
59. Urination: discharge of urine
60. Voiding: to urinate
Death and Dying
1. Advanced directive: a document that allows a person to make his wishes regarding health care known to family members and health care workers.
2. Cheyne-Stokes: irregular breathing. Breathing may be fast one moment and quite slow the next and may have periods of apnea, or not breathing at all.
3. DNR – do not resuscitate: an order written on a person’s chart specifying the person’s wishes that the usual efforts to save his life will not be made.
4. Empathy: you are able to try to imagine what it would feel like to be in another person’s situation.
5. Expire: to die or pass away
6. Hospice: provides care for people who are dying and their families
7. Life support systems: equipment that substitutes for an essential bodily function, such as respiration, enabling a patient who otherwise might not survive to live.
8. Living will: a type of advance directive that states a person’s wish that death not be artificially postponed.
9. Mottling: a condition of spotting with patches of color that occurs close to death.
10. Post mortem: the care of a person’s body after the person’s death
11. Power of attorney: allows the person to name someone else to make medical decisions on her behalf in case she is no longer able to make these decisions on her own.
12. Reminisce: indulge in enjoyable recollection of past events.
13. Rigor mortis: the stiffening of the muscles that usually develops within 2 to 4 hours of death.
14. Stages of the grief process:
Basic Human Needs/Communication
1. Abbreviations: shortened versions of words or phrases
2. Aphasia: inability to speak, speak clearly, or comprehend speech. Often follows a stroke.
3. Belief: the acceptance that a statement is true or that something exists
4. Body language/non-verbal: a way of communicating with one’s body expressions and gestures.
5. Cataract: lens of the eye becomes cloudy
6. Clarifying: make a statement or situation less confused and more clearly comprehensible.
7. Clergy: people ordained for religious duties
8. Communication: the exchange of information
9. Culture: the beliefs (including religious or spiritual beliefs), values, and traditions that are customary to a group of people; a view of the world that is handed down from generation to generation
10. Customs: a practice followed by people of a particular group or region. A habitual practice of a person.
11. Direct question: Focuses on certain information. You ask the person something you need to know. Often these questions can be answered with a “yes” or “no”.
12. Documentation: the act of supplying with or using documents or references
13. Erection: when the penis fills with blood and is rigid
14. Faith: Complete trust or confidence in someone or something. (Strong belief in God or in the doctrines of a religion
15. Glaucoma: a condition where pressure in the eye increases and damages the optic nerve
16. Hard of hearing/hearing impaired: hearing loss making it hard for a person to hear you.
17. Holism: treating of the whole person, taking into account mental and social factors, rather than just the physical symptoms of a disease.
18. Impotence: the inability to achieve or maintain an erection long enough to engage in sexual intercourse.
19. Intercourse: penetration of the vagina by the penis
20. Love/belonging need: to feel loved, accepted, and appreciated by others
21. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: represented as a pyramid with the more basic needs at the bottom
22. Masturbation: stimulation of the genitals for sexual pleasure or release by a means other than sexual intercourse
23. Medical record: a legal document where information about a patient’s or resident’s current condition, the measures that have been taken by the medical and nursing staff to diagnose and treat the condition, and the patient’s or residents response to the treatment and care provided is recorded, also called a medical chart.
24. Medical terminology: terms that are medical
25. Menopause: the cessation of menstruation and fertility that women typically experience in their early 50’s
26. Message: information being sent out
27. Nonverbal communication: a way of communicating that uses facial expressions, gestures, and body language, instead of written or spoken language.
28. Objective: information that is obtained directly, through measurements or by using one of the five senses, (sight, smell, taste, hearing, touch).
29. Open-ended questions: can’t be answered with “yes” or “no”
30. Paranoid: an unfounded or exaggerated distrust of others, sometimes reaching delusional proportions.
31. Paraphrasing: a rewording of something spoken or written, usually for the purpose of making its meaning clearer.
32. Pat answers/clichés: so easily and readily produced as to suggest lack of proper thought
33. Patient chart: is a confidential document that contains detailed and comprehensive information on an individual and the care experience related to that person
34. Physical /physiologic needs: we need oxygen, water, food, sleep, exercise, and shelter to survive.
35. Policy & procedure manual: Any information about the facility
36. Psychosocial: of or relating to the interrelation of social factors and individual thought and behavior.
37. Race: a general characterization that describes skin color, body stature, facial features and hair texture.
38. Receiver: person for whom information is intended
39. Reporting: the spoken exchange of information between health care team members
40. Safety/security needs: measures used to keep patients or residents safe
41. Self-actualization: the final level of psychological development that can be achieved when all basic and mental needs are fulfilled
42. Self-esteem needs: providing for privacy when it is necessary to expose someone’s body
43. Sender: person with information to share
44. Sexuality: how a person perceives his or her maleness or femaleness
45. Signs: objective observations (that is, observations based on information that is obtained directly, through measurements or by using one of the five senses
46. Spiritual beliefs/religion: closely linked with his or her culture.
47. Subjective: information that cannot be objectively measured or assessed
48. Symptoms: subjective observations (that is observations that are based on information that cannot be measured or observed first hand, such as a patient’s or resident’s complaint of pain.
49. Values: a cherished belief or principle
50. Verbal communication: a way of communicating that uses written or spoken language.
Cognitive Impairment and Mental Illness
1. Agitation: A state of anxiety or nervous excitement.
2. Alzheimer’s: progressive condition that affects the brain. Slowly affects memory, intelligence, judgment, language and behavior. Most common form is Dementia.
3. Anxiety: a feeling of uneasiness, dread, apprehension, or worry
4. Autism: a mental condition, present from early childhood, characterized by great difficulty in communicating and forming relationships, and in using language and abstract concepts
5. Birth trauma: physical injury to an infant during the birth process
6. Catastrophic reactions: the person over-reacts to something that would cause a healthy person minimal or no stress; the person becomes very agitated and may begin to scream.
7. Cerebral Palsy: brain damage to cerebrum caused congenitally at birth or as an infant
8. Cognitive impairment: when a person has trouble remembering, learning new things, concentrating, or making decisions that affect their everyday life.
9. Confusion: usually refers to loss of orientation (ability to place oneself correctly in the world by time, location, and personal identity)
10. Delirium: temporary changes in the brain that cause confusion
11. Delusions: false ideas or beliefs, especially about oneself.
12. Dementia: the permanent and progressive loss of the ability to think and remember.
13. Depression: a state of sadness that has advanced to a point of disrupting a person’s ability to perform daily functions. Is common in the elderly population and in the grieving process.
14. Down’s Syndrome: a congenital disorder, caused by the presence of an extra chromosome. Causes moderate to severe mental retardation.
15. Eating Disorders: any of a range of psychological disorders characterized by abnormal or disturbed eating habits.
16. Fetal alcohol syndrome: a congenital syndrome caused by excessive consumption of alcohol by the mother during pregnancy, characterized by retardation of both mental and physical development.
17. Hallucinations: episodes when a person sees, feels, hears, or tastes something that does not really exist.
18. Hoarding: The excessive collection of items, along with the inability to discard them.
19. Manic Depression (Bipolar Disorder): A mental health disorder that causes mood swings.
20. Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD): an anxiety disorder that causes a person to suffer intensely from recurrent unwanted thoughts and rituals.
21. Parkinson’s disease: a progressive neurologic disorder that is characterized by tremor and weakness in the muscles and a shuffling gait.
22. Phobias: excessive, abnormal fear of an object or situation.
23. Schizophrenia: a very disabling form of mental illness may be mild or severe. This person has trouble determining what is real and what is imaginary
24. Spina bifida: a congenital defect of the spine in which part of the spinal cord and its meninges are exposed through a gap in the backbone. It often causes paralysis of the lower limbs, and sometimes mental handicap.
25. Stress: is the condition that results when person-environment transactions lead the individual to perceive a discrepancy, whether real or not, between the demands of a situation and the resources of the person's biological, psychological or social systems.
26. Substance Abuse: Overindulgence in or dependence on an addictive substance, esp. alcohol or drugs.
27. Suicidal behavior: any action that could cause a person to die.
28. Sundowning: a state of increased agitation, confusion, and anxiety and negative behavior, that develops during the hours of darkness
29. Traumatic brain injury: occurs when an outside force traumatically injures the brain.
30. Wandering: Someone with decreased cognitive ability wonders or walks away from supervised care.
Body Systems/Disease and Conditions
1. Cancer: uncontrolled growth of cells. Malignant (cancerous) tumors are fast growing, invade surrounding tissue and are life-threatening. Benign tumors are slow growing, local, and can be treated.
2. Tumor: an abnormal growth of tissue; the cells that form the tumor may be benign or malignant.
3. Malignant: “evil”; adjective used to describe a cancerous tumor (that is, one that grows rapidly and spreads).
4. Benign: “good” or “kind”; adjective used to describe a non-cancerous tumor (that is, one that grows slowly and does not spread).
5. Chemotherapy: medications destroy the cancer cells
6. Radiation: powerful x-ray beams destroy the cancer cells
1. Chicken Pox: caused by the vaicella-zoster virus. Most common among those under the age of 12.
2. Epidurmis: the outer, protective, nonvascular layer of the skin
3. Inflammation: the complex biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants.
4. Integumentary: pertaining to or composed of skin. Serving as a covering
5. Rash: a change of the skin which affects its color, appearance or texture.
6. Scabies: easily spread skin disease caused by a very small type of mite
7. Shingles: a painful, blistering skin rash due to the varicella-zoster virus that causes chickenpox
8. Absorption: transfer of nutrients from the digestive tract into the bloodstream.
9. Anus: an opening at the opposite end of a person’s digestive tract from the mouth.
10. Bowel obstruction: a mechanical or functional obstruction of the intestines, preventing the normal transit of the products of digestion.
11. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE): Untreatable or hard to treat infections. CRE, are a part (or subgroup) of Enterobacteriaceae that are difficult to treat because they are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Occasionally CRE are completely resistant to all available antibiotics. CRE are an important threat to public health.
12. C-Diff (Clostridium difficile): Antibiotics kill the normal e coli/normal flora in the bowel that keeps the c_diff under control. Causing antibiotic associated diarrhea.
13. Colon: the last portion of the digestive system.
14. Constipation: a condition that occurs when the feces remain in the intestines for too long, resulting in hard, dry feces that are difficult to pass.
15. Cryptosporidium: a microscopic parasite that causes the diarrheal disease cryptosporidiosis. Found in drinking water and recreational water.
16. Digestion: the process of breaking food down into simple elements (nutrients).
17. Esophagus: an organ which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach.
18. Excretion: the process of eliminating waste products of metabolism and other non-useful materials.
19. Gallbladder: a small pouch that is attached to the liver, stores bile produced by the liver that is not secreted directly into the small intestine.
20. Gastrointestinal/digestive: the system of organs within humans that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining matter.
21. GERD/ Acid relux: return of the stomach’s contents back up into the esophagus
22. Hemorrhoids: a swelling and inflammation of veins in the rectum and anus.
23. Large intestine: the second to last part of the digestive system.
24. Liver: produces and secretes bile, a substance that helps us to digest fat.
25. Nausea: the sensation of unease and discomfort in the stomach with an urge to vomit.
26. Pancreas: produces insulin and glucagon, which work together to keep the body’s blood glucose levels stable
27. Rectum: final section of the large intestine, terminating at the anus
28. Reflux: A flowing back.
29. Saliva: the watery and usually frothy substance produced in the mouths of humans.
30. Small Intestine: the part of the gastrointestinal tract following the stomach and followed by the large intestine, and is where the vast majority of digestion and absorption of food takes place.
31. Stomach ulcers: an erosion in a person’s gastrointestinal tract. May become malignant.
32. Stool/feces: a term used to refer to fecal matter after it has left the body.
33. Vomiting (emesis): the forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth.
34. Fibromyalgia: a chronic pain in muscles, soft tissue, and surrounding joints.
35. Joint: the area where two bones join together.
36. Ligament: very strong bands of fibrous tissue that cross over the joint capsule, attaching one bone to another and stabilizing the joint.
37. Osteoarthritis: degeneration of joint cartilage and the underlying bone
38. Phantom pain: the feeling that a body part is still present, after it has been surgically removed (amputated).
39. Tendon: bands of connective tissue that attach the skeletal muscles to the bones.
40. Angina pectoris: the classic chest pain that is felt as a result of the heart muscle being deprived of oxygen.
41. Artery: a blood vessel that is part of the system carrying blood under pressure from the heart to the rest of the body.
42. Cardiac: relating to or affecting the heart.
43. Pacemaker: device that regulates heartbeat: a battery-operated electrical device inserted into the body to deliver small regular shocks that stimulate the heart to beat in a normal rhythm.
44. Veins: blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.
45. Blood sugar: refers to the amount of glucose present in the blood.
46. Glucometer: a medical device for determining the approximate concentration of glucose in the blood.
47. Hormones: chemicals that act on cells to produce a response.
48. Insulin: is a hormone that has extensive effects on metabolism and other body functions.
49. Metabolism: is the set of chemical reactions that occur in living organisms to maintain life.
50. Pancreas: large gland behind the stomach that secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum
51. Thyroid: one of the largest endocrine glands in the body, it controls how quickly the body burns energy, makes proteins, and how sensitive the body should be to other hormones.
52. Kidney: clear “poisons” from the blood, regulate acid concentration and maintain water balance in the body by excreting urine.
53. Nocturia: the need to get up more than once or twice during the night to urinate, to the point, where sleep is disrupted.
54. Urethra: the duct by which urine is conveyed out of the body from the bladder.
55. BPH –Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy(enlarged prostate): a condition commonly seen in males over 50. It is a progressive condition that can lead to obstruction of the urethra.
56. Estrogen: hormones that promote the development and maintenance of female characteristics of the body.
57. Fallopian tubes: two very fine tubes l, leading from the ovaries of female into the uterus.
58. Menopause: A time in a woman's life when her periods (menstruation) eventually stop and the body goes through changes that no longer allow her to get pregnant. It is a natural event that normally occurs in women age 45 - 55.
59. Ovaries: an ovum-producing reproductive organ.
60. Ovum: female reproductive cell
61. Prostate: is an exocrine gland of the male.
62. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD’s, STI): an infection that is most commonly transmitted by sexual, contact; also known as venereal disease.
63. Sperm: male reproductive cells.
64. Testes: produces sperm.
65. Testosterone: is primarily secreted in the testes of males and the ovaries of females,
66. Uterus: a major female hormone-responsive reproductive sex organ
67. Vulva: the external genital organs of the female
Nervous,Senses & Sensory
68. Blindness: loss of useful sight. Can be temporary or permanent.
69. Brain: where information is processed and instructions are issued.
70. Cerebrovascular Accident: A condition when the blood vessels that supply blood to the brain rupture or become blocked and the brain cells in that area of the brain die. Functions controlled by that area of the brain con be lost or impaired.
71. Cataracts: the gradual yellowing and hardening of the lens of the eye
72. Central nervous system (CNS): the brain and spinal cord; responsible for receiving information, processing it, and issuing instructions.
73. Cerebral palsy: Brain damage to cerebrum caused congenitally, at birth or as an infant.
74. Confusion: disturbed orientation in regard to time, place, or person
75. Deafness: hearing loss, complete or partial.
76. Epilepsy: a condition of the brain that causes a person to have seizures.
77. Glaucoma: a disorder of the eye that occurs when the pressure within the eye is increased to dangerous levels.
Hear – ears
78. Multiple sclerosis: a chronic disease where the myelin (covering) of the brain and spinal cord are destroyed causing the nerve impulses to not function in the normal manner. Muscle control, strength, vision, balance, sensation, and mental functions can be affected.
79. Nerves: whitish fiber that transits impulses of sensation to the brain or spinal cord
80. Paraplegia: paralysis from the waist down.
81. Parkinson’s Disease: a slow progressive degeneration of the brain that has no cure.
82. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): consists of the nerves that supply every part of the body. Sensory nerves or motor nerves.
83. Presbyopia: far sightedness caused by loss of elasticity of the lens, occurring typically in middle and old age.
84. Sense Organs:
Sight – eyes
Taste – tongue
Touch - skin
Smell – nose
85. Spinal cord: is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the brain.
86. Transient ischemic attack (TIA): temporary lack of blood flow to the brain. A warning sign of stroke often called “mini-strokes”.
87. Vertigo: sensation of rotation or movement of one’s self or of one’s surroundings, dizzy
88. Alveoli: the final branching of the respiratory tree and act as the primary gas exchange units of the lung.
89. Bradypnea: slow breathing
90. Bronchi: Two main branches of the trachea that go into the lungs
91. Epiglottis: the opening of the larynx is covered by this flap of cartilage.
92. Exhale: to breath out.
93. Hypoxia: low oxygenation of the body
94. Influenza: contagious respiratory illness caused by the influenza viruses
95. Inhale: to breath in
96. Larynx: a part of the body that functions as an airway to the lungs as well as providing us with a way of communicating (vocalizing).
97. Measles: a highly contagious respiratory disease caused by the measles virus. Spread through the air by breathing, coughing or sneezing.
98. Nares: the external openings of the nasal cavity
99. Pallor: pale color of skin
100. Tachypnea: very rapid respiration
101. Trachea: the bony tube that connects the nose and mouth to the lungs
102. Tuberculosis: an airborne infection caused by a bacterium that usually infects the lungs